Anaerobic treatment Anaerobic wastewater treatment uses biological agents in an oxygen-free environment to remove impurities from wastewater.

AOX, Absorbable organic halogens Expresses the amount of chlorine-bound organic substances. Some of these substances accumulate in fish and fish-eating birds.

ASR (Accident Severity Rate) The severity of accidents defined as the number of days lost due to accidents (DLA) in relation to the number of lost time accidents (LTA). Refer also to FR, IR and Lost Time Accidents (LTA).

BAT, Best Available Technology Officially used terminology to describe the state-of-the-art technology that industry should use in the field of activity concerned (see IED directive and BREF).

Biodiversity A term describing the multitude of life forms and species (flora and fauna) in an ecosystem. An ecosystem is a biological community living in a particular physical environment.

Biofuel Renewable fuel from wood and process residues.

BOD, Biochemical oxygen demand Water emission factor which describes the amount of oxygen consumed during biodegradation of dissolved organic matter in effluent water, without describing the specific substances present. High BOD values indicate depletion of the normal oxygen content of the water environment. It is measured over seven days in SCA’s Swedish mills and five days in the rest of Europe, in accordance with national legislative systems.

BREF Best Available Technology Reference Document. This document identifies BAT (Best Available Technology) for a number of sectors selected by the EU, including the pulp and paper industry.

Bribery Is the giving or receiving of any undue reward by or to any person to influence their behavior in a manner contrary to the principles of honesty and integrity.

Carbon sink As they grow, forests transform gaseous carbon into solid form, thereby absorbing CO2 whilst simultaneously producing oxygen. Forests, agricultural land and the world’s oceans are considered to be “carbon sinks” by current science.

Chain-of-Custody The traceability of the origins of a product through all its transformations from raw material to finished product. In the SCA context, Chain-of-Custody certification links SCA’s products with its FSC- and PEFC-certified forests.

Chemical pulp Pulp from wood fibers processed chemically, normally by cooking.

Chemical Thermo Mechanical Pulp, CTMP A high-yield pulp (about 90–95% yield from the wood) which is obtained by heating and then grinding chemically pre-treated spruce chips in refining machinery.

Child Labor Refers to the employment of workers who do not meet the applicable national minimum legal age requirement.

CHP See Co-generation or Combined Heat and Power.

Climate Change Also defined as global warming. Human activity contributes to the warming of the global environment and its resulting effects, which range from higher temperatures to eccentric weather patterns and melting of the ice caps.

CO2 biogenic The carbon dioxide derived from combustion of biofuel. It is calculated from the carbon content of wood.

CO2, Carbon dioxide A gaseous compound emitted naturally through geological activity during the decomposition process and through human activity. Industry and transport and heating/cooling are currently the largest emitters of CO2.

CO2 fossil The carbon dioxide derived from combustion of fossil fuels. It is calculated from the carbon content of each fuel.

COD, Chemical oxygen demand Water emission factor which describes the amount of oxygen consumed when dissolved matter in effluent water oxidizes. High COD values can indicate a risk of depletion of the normal oxygen content in the water environment.

Code of Conduct Is a formal statement of the values and business practices of a company. A code is a statement of minimum standards, together with a pledge by the company to observe them and to also require its contractors, subcontractors and suppliers, to observe them.

Co-generation or Combined Heat and Power, CHP Combined production of electricity and thermal energy. Co-generation has a high total efficiency.

Consumer waste Waste generated after a product has been used, for example, used diapers, feminine care products and tissue.

Dust Particles in the flue gas created during combustion.

Effluent water Water discharged to water courses after treatment.

Electric boiler Electricity supplied for thermal heat (production), for boilers and heat pumps, measured at the site and converted into GJ.

Environmental Management System The part of the overall management system which includes the structure, practices, procedures and resources for the systematic implementation of the organization’s own environmental policy.

EPD, Environmental Product Declaration Quantified environmental data for a product with pre-set categories of parameters based on the ISO 14040 series of standards but not excluding additional environmental information.

ESAVE Structured energy-saving program introduced by SCA in its energy-intensive manufacturing units in 2003. Its aim is to substantially reduce the consumption of energy in production units.

ETS, Emission Trading Scheme (or System) Greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme for the cost-effective reduction of such emissions in the European Union.

Forced labor This includes indentured, debt bondage or involuntary labor of any kind.

Fossil fuel Coal, fuel oil and natural gas.

Freedom of Association Refers to the right of employees to lawfully join associations of their own choosing, peacefully associate, organize or bargain collectively.

FR, Frequency Rate The number of accidents/incidents per million hours worked.

Fresh wood fiber Also referred to as virgin fiber. First generation use of raw material derived from wood.

FSC®, Forest Stewardship Council An international organization promoting responsible forest management. FSC has developed principles for forest management used for certifying the management of forest holdings, and a system of tracing, verifying and labelling timber and wood products based on FSC-certified forests. SCA is an active supporter of FSC.

FSC’s standard for Controlled Wood This standard makes it possible for producers to mix FSC-certified material with uncertified material under controlled conditions. The traceability standard comprises strict rules on how and to what extent mixing may take place. The uncertified material is required to come from controlled and acceptable sources.

Grid supply The electricity supplied from the national grid.

GWh Gigawatt hours Unit of energy measurement (electricity and heat). 1GWh=1 million kWh.

Hazardous waste Material disposed of by authorized contractors, as defined by national laws.

Human Rights Are based on the recognition of the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family, and are the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world. They are defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

IED (Industry Emissions Directive) The EU Directive on integrated pollution prevention and control.

Incidence Rate, IR Number of incidents per 200,000 working hours.

Inorganic material Covers inorganic fillers and coating materials supplied to a site calculated at 100% dry substances (ds).

International Labor Organization (ILO) The International Labor Organization is a United Nations Agency, which establishes Conventions on Labor standards that are binding for member states when ratified. There are over 150 ILO Conventions, eight of which are “Core Conventions” since they embody fundamental human rights and set minimum labor standards.

ISO 14001 The standard published by the International Standards Organization, specifying the requirements of an environmental management system. All SCA European mills are certified ISO 14001.

Kraftliner Packaging paper primarily made of fresh wood.

Leach/Leachate The percolation of liquids through the earth. The leaching natural process can pollute underground water or surface water, which is situated below a retention basin of wastewater, or a landfill, which is biologically active, for example.

Life cycle assessment, LCA A method of assessing the environmental impact of a product, taking account of its entire lifespan from raw material extraction to waste disposal.

LTA, Lost Time Accidents Accidents that cause the absence of an employee from work.

LWC paper, Light Weight Coated LWC paper is a coated paper with a high mechanical pulp content. Used for high-quality magazines and advertising materials with demanding color-printing requirements.

Main site A production facility that is wholly owned by SCA and that has 100 or more employees.

Mechanical pulp Debarked wood that is ground or chipped for mechanical refining to separate the fibers that form pulp.

N, Nitrogen A chemical element, also present in wood, that is necessary for plant and animal life. Excess N in water can cause major increases in the amount of algae, which can lead to oxygen deficiency when the algae decompose.

Newsprint Paper for newspapers produced from mechanical pulp based on fresh fiber or recovered fiber.

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Are national, international, and community-based groups that raise awareness about social, environmental, community and human rights issues.

NOX as NO2 The nitrogen oxides NO and NO2, calculated as NO2 derived from combustion. Where NOX is not measured, a standard value of 100 mg/MJ fuel is used.

Organic fossil material Covers crude-oil-based materials, such as super-absorbents and adhesives calculated at 100% dry substances.

PEFC, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification An international organization promoting responsible forest management and certification.

P, Phosphorus A chemical element, also present in wood, that is necessary for plant and animal life. Excess P in water can cause nutrient enrichment.

Production waste To SCA, waste comprises only materials leaving its production units that cannot be used for any further useful purpose. Recovered paper and fiber are excluded, since they form part of SCA’s main raw materials.

REACH, Regulation, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals European regulation (1,907/2,000/EC) which address the production and (safe) use of chemical substances and their potential impact on both human health and the environment. Some 30,000 chemicals will have to be registered after testing with the central European Chemical Agency (ECHA) in Helsinki. Companies will have to obtain authorization to use hazardous chemicals.

RMS SCA’s Resource Management System: a means of collecting and collating all environmental data and resource utilization within the SCA Group.

Recovered fiber Paper-making fiber derived from a secondary source, such as used paper and board, used for recycling.

Renewable All materials which can be re-grown or produced without depletion of natural resources.

SO2 Total sulfur calculated as SO2 from processes and combustion at the site. Where SO2 is not measured, the input sulfur in the fuel is calculated.

SRI, Socially responsible investment A method of selecting stocks for investment using criteria related to a company’s environmental, social and ethical performance.

Sludge Residue from the production of paper; consists of inert materials, mainly small fiber debris, filler and other inert materials. It used to be sent to landfill. Nowadays, used as ‘new’ raw material and incinerated for energy recovery.

Solid-wood products Wood sawn into various dimensions and sizes for furniture, joinery and construction uses.

Stakeholders Groups of people with whom an organization has active relationships, and with whom effective dialog is necessary to the functioning of the business. Shareholders, authorities, customers, employees and professional associations are all stakeholders in SCA’s business activities.

Suspended solids Particles that are not dissolved in the effluent water.

TCF, Totally Chlorine Free Paper pulp which is bleached without using chlorine in any form.

TMP, Thermo Mechanical Pulp A high-yield pulp (about 90–95% yield from the wood) which is obtained by heating spruce chips and then grinding them in refiners.

TJ, Terajoule A unit used to measure energy (fuel).

Tissue Creped soft paper which is the basis for hygiene products such as napkins, toilet paper and towels, and toweling products for institutions, hotels, etc.

TWh, TeraWatt hour Unit of energy measurement. 1 TWh=1,000 million KWh

UN Global Compact A strategic platform for sustainable business. Today, Global Compact is the world’s largest voluntary initiative with more than 12,000 signatories from 145 countries who have committed to work according to the Global Compact’s ten principles concerning human rights, labor, the environment and anti-corruption.

Water Represents the sum of surface water, ground water and tap water for processes and cooling purposes.

Water stress Occurs when the amount of good quality water is no longer enough to cover the community’s needs. The definition that is usually used for water stress is if the amount of fresh water available in a country is less than 1,700 cubic meters per person and year. This can be compared with the limits for chronic water scarcity (1,000 cubic meters per person and year) and absolute water scarcity (500 cubic meters per person and year).