Anaerobic treatment

Anaerobic wastewater treatment uses biological agents in an oxygen-free environment to remove impurities from wastewater.

Antitrust, competition laws

Laws and regulations to prevent a restriction of competition and the formation of monopolies that can threaten free competition in trade and business.

AOX, Absorbable organic halogens

Expresses the amount of chlorine-bound organic substances. Some of these substances accumulate in fish and fish-eating birds.

ASR (Accident Severity Rate)

The severity of accidents defined as the number of days lost due to accidents (DLA) in relation to the number of lost time accidents (LTA). Refer also to FR, IR and Lost Time Accidents (LTA).

BAT, Best Available Technology

Officially used terminology to describe the state-of-the-art technology that industry should use in the field of activity concerned (see IED directive and BREF).


A term describing the multitude of life forms and species (flora and fauna) in an ecosystem. An ecosystem is a biological community living in a particular physical environment.


Renewable fuel from wood and process residues.

BOD, Biochemical oxygen demand

Water emission factor which describes the amount of oxygen consumed during biodegradation of dissolved organic matter in effluent water, without describing the specific substances present. High BOD values indicate depletion of the normal oxygen content of the water environment. It is measured over seven days in SCA’s Swedish mills and five days in the rest of Europe, in accordance with national legislative systems.

BPA (Business Practice Audit)

An audit of business ethics within SCA carried out by the internal audit function. The audit reviews compliance with policies and relationships with customers, suppliers and authorities.


Best Available Technology Reference Document. This document identifies BAT (Best Available Technology) for a number of sectors selected by the EU, including the pulp and paper industry.


Is the giving or receiving of any undue reward by or to any person to influence their behavior in a manner contrary to the principles of honesty and integrity.

Carbon sink

As they grow, forests transform gaseous carbon into solid form, thereby absorbing CO2 whilst simultaneously producing oxygen. Forests, agricultural land and the world’s oceans are considered to be “carbon sinks” by current science.


The traceability of the origins of a product through all its transformations from raw material to finished product. In the SCA context, Chain-of-Custody certification links SCA’s products with its FSC- and PEFC-certified forests.

Chemical pulp

Pulp from wood fibers processed chemically, normally by cooking.

Chemical Thermo Mechanical Pulp, CTMP

A high-yield pulp (about 90–95% yield from the wood) which is obtained by heating and then grinding chemically pre-treated spruce chips in refining machinery.

Child Labor

Refers to the employment of workers who do not meet the applicable national minimum legal age requirement.


See Co-generation or Combined Heat and Power.

Circular economy

Economic models in a company, society or an organization where a circular closed-loop is used instead of a linear model.

Climate Change

Also defined as global warming. Human activity contributes to the warming of the global environment and its resulting effects, which range from higher temperatures to eccentric weather patterns and melting of the ice caps.

Co-generation or Combined Heat and Power, CHP

Combined production of electricity and thermal energy. Co-generation has a high total efficiency.

CO2 biogenic

The carbon dioxide derived from combustion of biofuel. It is calculated from the carbon content of wood.

CO2, Carbon dioxide

A gaseous compound emitted naturally through geological activity during the decomposition process and through human activity. Industry and transport and heating/cooling are currently the largest emitters of CO2.

CO2 fossil

The carbon dioxide derived from combustion of fossil fuels. It is calculated from the carbon content of each fuel.

COD, Chemical oxygen demand

Water emission factor which describes the amount of oxygen consumed when dissolved matter in effluent water oxidizes. High COD values can indicate a risk of depletion of the normal oxygen content in the water environment.

Code of Conduct

Is a formal statement of the values and business practices of a company. A code is a statement of minimum standards, together with a pledge by the company to observe them and to also require its contractors, subcontractors and suppliers, to observe them.

Code of Conduct Audit

An audit of compliance with the Code of Conduct at SCA units, based on the content of the Code and the SA8000 standard.

Conflict minerals

A conflict resource is a raw material that is extracted in a conflict area and the sale of which finances continued fighting, or enables international criminality or serious violations of human rights. The most common conflict minerals are cassiterite, wolframite, coltan and gold ore.


Particles in the flue gas created during combustion.

Effluent water

Water discharged to water courses after treatment.

Electric boiler

Electricity supplied for thermal heat (production), for boilers and heat pumps, measured at the site and converted into GJ.

Environmental Management System

The part of the overall management system which includes the structure, practices, procedures and resources for the systematic implementation of the organization’s own environmental policy.

EPD, Environmental Product Declaration

Quantified environmental data for a product with pre-set categories of parameters based on the ISO 14040 series of standards but not excluding additional environmental information.


Structured energy-saving program introduced by SCA in its energy-intensive manufacturing units in 2003. Its aim is to substantially reduce the consumption of energy in production units.

ETS, Emission Trading Scheme (or System)

Greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme for the cost-effective reduction of such emissions in the European Union.

Forced labor

This includes indentured, debt bondage or involuntary labor of any kind.

Fossil fuel

Coal, fuel oil and natural gas.

FR, Frequency Rate

The number of accidents/incidents per million hours worked.

Freedom of Association

Refers to the right of employees to lawfully join associations of their own choosing, peacefully associate, organize or bargain collectively.

Fresh wood fiber

Also referred to as virgin fiber. First generation use of raw material derived from wood.

FSC®, Forest Stewardship Council

An international organization promoting responsible forest management. FSC has developed principles for forest management used for certifying the management of forest holdings, and a system of tracing, verifying and labelling timber and wood products based on FSC-certified forests. SCA is an active supporter of FSC.

FSC's standard for Controlled Wood

This standard makes it possible for producers to mix FSC-certified material with uncertified material under controlled conditions. The traceability standard comprises strict rules on how and to what extent mixing may take place. The uncertified material is required to come from controlled and acceptable sources.

Grid supply

The electricity supplied from the national grid.

GWh Gigawatt hours

Unit of energy measurement (electricity and heat). 1GWh=1 million kWh.

Hazardous waste

Material disposed of by authorized contractors, as defined by national laws.

Human Rights

Are based on the recognition of the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family, and are the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world. They are defined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

IED (Industry Emissions Directive)

The EU Directive on integrated pollution prevention and control.

Incidence Rate, IR

Number of incidents per 200,000 working hours.

Inorganic material

Covers inorganic fillers and coating materials supplied to a site calculated at 100% dry substances (ds).

International Labor Organization (ILO)

The International Labor Organization is a United Nations Agency, which establishes Conventions on Labor standards that are binding for member states when ratified. There are over 150 ILO Conventions, eight of which are “Core Conventions” since they embody fundamental human rights and set minimum labor standards.

ISO 14001

The standard published by the International Standards Organization, specifying the requirements of an environmental management system. All SCA European mills are certified ISO 14001.


Packaging paper primarily made of fresh wood.


The percolation of liquids through the earth. The leaching natural process can pollute underground water or surface water, which is situated below a retention basin of wastewater, or a landfill, which is biologically active, for example.

Life cycle assessment, LCA

A method of assessing the environmental impact of a product, taking account of its entire lifespan from raw material extraction to waste disposal.

LTA, Lost Time Accidents

Accidents that cause the absence of an employee from work.

LWC paper, Light Weight Coated

LWC paper is a coated paper with a high mechanical pulp content. Used for high-quality magazines and advertising materials with demanding color-printing requirements.

Main site

A production facility that is wholly owned by SCA and that has 100 or more employees.

Mechanical pulp

Debarked wood that is ground or chipped for mechanical refining to separate the fibers that form pulp.

N, Nitrogen

A chemical element, also present in wood, that is necessary for plant and animal life. Excess N in water can cause major increases in the amount of algae, which can lead to oxygen deficiency when the algae decompose.


Paper for newspapers produced from mechanical pulp based on fresh fiber or recovered fiber.

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

Are national, international, and community-based groups that raise awareness about social, environmental, community and human rights issues.

NOx as NO2

The nitrogen oxides NO and NO2, calculated as NO2 derived from combustion. Where NOX is not measured, a standard value of 100 mg/MJ fuel is used.

OHSAS 18001

Management system standard for occupational health and safety.

Organic fossil material

Covers crude-oil-based materials, such as super-absorbents and adhesives calculated at 100% dry substances.

P, Phosphorus

A chemical element, also present in wood, that is necessary for plant and animal life. Excess P in water can cause nutrient enrichment.

PEFC™, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification

An international organization promoting responsible forest management and certification.

Post-consumer waste

Waste generated after a product has been used, for example, used diapers, feminine care products and tissue.

Production waste

To SCA, waste comprises only materials leaving its production units that cannot be used for any further useful purpose. Recovered paper and fiber are excluded, since they form part of SCA’s main raw materials.

REACH, Regulation, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals

European regulation (1,907/2,000/EC) which address the production and (safe) use of chemical substances and their potential impact on both human health and the environment. Some 30,000 chemicals will have to be registered after testing with the central European Chemical Agency (ECHA) in Helsinki. Companies will have to obtain authorization to use hazardous chemicals.

Recovered fiber

Paper-making fiber derived from a secondary source, such as used paper and board, used for recycling.


All materials which can be re-grown or produced without depletion of natural resources.


SCA’s Resource Management System: a means of collecting and collating all environmental data and resource utilization within the SCA Group.

Science-based carbon targets

The Science Based Targets initiative is a partnership between CDP (formerly known as the Carbon Disclosure Project), the UN’s Global Compact, the WRI (World Resources Institute) and the WWF. Science Based Targets helps companies to determine the level of decarbonization required to keep global temperature increase below 2 degrees Celsius, as agreed at the COP21 UN climate change conference in Paris in 2015.

SDG (Sustainable Development Goals)

UN’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals, including 169 intermediate targets, which were adopted in 2015. They replace the Millennium Development Goals and shall be achieved by 2030.

Sedex (Supplier Ethical Data Exchange)

A non-profit membership organization which promotes responsible and ethical supply chains. Companies can report and share information about health and safety, working conditions, the environment and business ethics in a global database.


Residue from the production of paper; consists of inert materials, mainly small fiber debris, filler and other inert materials. It used to be sent to landfill. Nowadays, used as ‘new’ raw material and incinerated for energy recovery.


Total sulfur calculated as SO2 from processes and combustion at the site. Where SO2 is not measured, the input sulfur in the fuel is calculated.

Solid-wood products

Wood sawn into various dimensions and sizes for furniture, joinery and construction uses.

SRI, Socially responsible investment

A method of selecting stocks for investment using criteria related to a company’s environmental, social and ethical performance.


Groups of people with whom an organization has active relationships, and with whom effective dialog is necessary to the functioning of the business. Shareholders, authorities, customers, employees and professional associations are all stakeholders in SCA’s business activities.

Suspended solids

Particles that are not dissolved in the effluent water.

TCF, Totally Chlorine Free

Paper pulp which is bleached without using chlorine in any form.


Creped soft paper which is the basis for hygiene products such as napkins, toilet paper and towels, and toweling products for institutions, hotels, etc.

TJ, Terajoule

A unit used to measure energy (fuel).

TMP, Thermo Mechanical Pulp

A high-yield pulp (about 90–95% yield from the wood) which is obtained by heating spruce chips and then grinding them in refiners.

TWh, TeraWatt hour

Unit of energy measurement. 1 TWh=1,000 million KWh

UN Global Compact

A strategic platform for sustainable business. Today, Global Compact is the world’s largest voluntary initiative with more than 12,000 signatories from 145 countries who have committed to work according to the Global Compact’s ten principles concerning human rights, labor, the environment and anti-corruption.


Represents the sum of surface water, ground water and tap water for processes and cooling purposes.

Water stress

Occurs when the amount of good quality water is no longer enough to cover the community’s needs. The definition that is usually used for water stress is if the amount of fresh water available in a country is less than 1,700 cubic meters per person and year. This can be compared with the limits for chronic water scarcity (1,000 cubic meters per person and year) and absolute water scarcity (500 cubic meters per person and year).